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Note: All speaking questions have a recorder. Go to TOEFL speaking practice page to record all answers.
Students should be able to speak successfully in and outside the classroom. The Speaking section measures the test taker’s ability to speak effectively in academic settings.
The Speaking section is approximately 20 minutes long and includes six tasks.
The best way to practice speaking is with native speakers of English. If you do not live in an English-speaking country, finding native speakers of English might be quite challenging. In some countries, there are English-speaking tutors or assistants who help students with conversation skills and overall communication skills. It is critical to find them and speak with them as often as possible. Another way to practice speaking is by joining an English club whose members converse in English about movies, music, and travel. If a club does not exist in your area, start one and invite native speakers to help you get started.
|Task Type||Task Description||Timing|
|1. Personal Preference||This question asks the test taker to express and defend a personal choice from a given category—for example, important people, places, events or activities that the test taker enjoys.||Preparation time:
|2. Choice||This question asks the test taker to make and defend a personal choice between two contrasting behaviors or courses of action.||Preparation time:
|Task Type||Task Description||Timing|
|3. Campus Situation Topic: Fit and Explain||
|4. Academic Course Topic: General/Specific||
|5. Campus Situation Topic: Problem/Solution||
|6. Academic Course Topic: Summary||
The Listening section measures the test taker’s ability to understand spoken English. In academic settings, students must be able to listen to lectures and conversations. Academic listening is typically done for one of the three following purposes:
Listening material in the new test includes academic lectures and long conversations in which the speech sounds very natural. Test takers can take notes on any listening material throughout the entire test.
The lectures in the TOEFL iBT reflect the kind of listening and speaking that occurs in the classroom. In some of the lectures, the professor does all or almost all of the talking, with an occasional comment by a student. In other lectures, the professor may engage the students in discussion by asking questions that are answered by the students. The pictures that accompany the lecture help the test taker know whether one or several people will be speaking.
The conversations on the TOEFL iBT may take place during an office meeting with a professor or teaching assistant, or during a service encounter with university staff. The contents of the office conversations are generally academic in nature or related to course requirements. Service encounters could involve conversations about a housing payment, registering for a class, or requesting information at the library.
There are four question formats in the Listening section:
Listening to the English language frequently and reading a wide variety of academic materials is the best way to improve listening skills.
Watching movies and television, and listening to the radio provide excellent opportunities to build listening skills. Audiotapes and CDs of lectures and presentations are equally valuable and are available at libraries and bookstores. Those with transcripts are particularly helpful. The Internet is also a great resource for listening material (e.g., www.npr.org or www.bbc.co.uk/radio or www.bbc.co.uk/worldservice/learningenglish).
Okay, class! Today were are going to discuss Ragtime music. It’s a genre that some of you may have heard before, but will likely be new for most of you. First, remember that a genre is a type of classification. Hip-Hop and Rock are genres of music, and you should be able to think on your own how each of those genres comes with a set of characteristics that define each type of music and sets it apart. Right? Hip-hop often features raps and close attention to the beats. Rock refers to music that mostly includes a four-person band: 2 guitarists, 1 bass-player, and 1 drummer. So then, what characterizes the genre known as Ragtime? Well, Ragtime music is most defined by the presence of a shifted or ragged rhythm. This means that the regular flow or rhythm of a piece of music will be disrupted by a shift, making it sound off-beat. Ragtime music is considered to be lively and springy, which makes it great for dancing to.
Let’s look more specifically at the form of Ragtime music. Ragging, thus created the ragged rhythm, was first a modification of the march made popular by John Philip Sousa. Additional polyrhythms then came from African music. Ragtime itself was usually written in 2/4 or 4/4 time with a predominant left-hand pattern of bass notes on strong beats and chords on weak beats, accompanied by a modified melody in the right-hand. According to some sources, the name ragtime may very well come from the ragged rhythm of the right hand. There are also rags written in 3/4 time, which are known specifically as a ragtime waltz.
We just talked a bit about the time that Rag is written in, but I want you all to understand something very important: Ragtime is not strictly confined to any one time, like how a march will always be in 2/4 and a waltz will always be in 3/4. Instead it is…..let’s see how to say this….a musical genre that can be applied to any meter…so rather than being one specific time, it can take any time and syncopates the beat to become rag. The defining characteristic of ragtime music is that type of syncopation in which melodic accents occur between metrical beats. This results in a melody that seems like it avoids some metrical beats of the accompaniment by emphasizing notes that either anticipate of follow the beat. It might sound a bit complicated, but the ultimate intention is to accentuate the beat and get the listener to move to the music.
Now that you know a little about what Ragtime is, let’s discuss its history. Ragtime was popular between the 1890’s and the early 1900’s. It began as dance music in the red-light districts of African American communities in St. Louis and New Orleans. It was many years before Ragtime actually became published as popular sheet music for piano. The man who is credited for developing this genre of music is Ernest Hogan. Hogan worked as a comedian and entertainer, producing many shows that featured the syncopation that became integral to the Ragtime genre. Moving on….Scott Joplin is also a notable figure in the history of ragtime. He became famous for composing “Maple Leaf Rag” in 1899 and then a string of ragtime hits, such as “The Entertainer”. I’d bet that most of you today even know “The Entertainer” or have heard it at some point in your lives. Anyway…a key thing to take away here is that Scott Joplin is easily the biggest ragtime composer and his music went on to influence many other composers for a number of years.
Alas, as we move forward in time, Ragtime eventually declined in popularity and jazz began to claim the public’s attention. In 1917, Ragtime was officially pushed out by Jazz. That being said, jazz likely wouldn’t have happened without Ragtime. Just like Ragtime built off of the marches which were popular before it, jazz built off of ragtime.
To cap off this discussion, I want to end with a quote from Scott Joplin. Known as the King of Ragtime, Joplin called the effects of the music “weird and intoxicating”. He also used the term swing to describe how to play ragtime and would say “play slowly until you catch the swing”. So, take a listen to some Ragtime music, and let yourself find the swing in it. While Ragtime may not be your cup of tea, just make sure you understand its importance along the wide spectrum of music and that music is a universal language that speaks to us all.
1 What is the lecture mainly about?
2 Which of the following most accurately describes the main characteristic of ragtime music?
3 How has the professor organized the lecture?
4 Which of the following three answers applies to ragtime?.
5 Which other musical genre pushed ragtime out of the top spot in 1917?
6 What does the professor imply about the way that music evolves over time?
The Reading section measures the test taker’s ability to understand university-level academic texts and passages. In many academic settings around the world, students are expected to read and understand information from textbooks and other academic materials written in English. The following are three purposes for academic reading:
Reading passages: The TOEFL iBT uses reading passages from university-level textbooks that introduce a discipline or topic. The excerpts are changed as little as possible so the TOEFL iBT can measure how well students can read academic material.
The passages cover a variety of different subjects. Test takers should not be concerned if they are unfamiliar with a topic. The passage contains all the information needed to answer the questions.
All passages are classified into three basic categories:
Often, passages present information about the topic from more than one perspective or point of view. This is something test takers should note as they read. Usually, they are asked at least one question that allows them to demonstrate that they understood the general organization of the passage. Common organization types that test takers should be able to recognize are:
There are three question formats in the Reading section:
These questions test the student’s ability to recognize how the passage is organized and understand the relationships among facts and ideas in different parts of the passage. Test takers sort information and place the text options provided into a category chart or summary. The summary questions are worth up to 2 points each. The chart questions are worth up to 3 points if there are five options presented, and up to 4 points if there are seven options presented. Partial credit is given in this question format.
Questions in this category are in multiple-choice format. They test the student’s ability to select the answer choice that most accurately paraphrases a sentence from the passage.
English-language learners can improve their reading skills by reading regularly, especially university textbooks or other materials that cover a variety of subject areas (e.g., sciences, social sciences, arts, business, etc.) and are written in an academic style. A wide variety of academic texts are available on the Internet as well as in magazines and journals.
Charles Darwin's Theory of Evolution is known as one of the most important and controversial scientific theories ever published. Darwin was an English scientist in the 19th century best known for his book “On the Origin of Species.” In his book, Darwin postulated different species shared characteristics of common ancestors, that they branched off from common ancestors as they evolved, and that new traits and characteristics were a result of natural selection. The theory is based on the assumptions that life developed from non-life and progressed and evolved in an indirect manner. Therefore, the Theory of Evolution, while controversial, has shaped and influenced the modern scientific world's thinking on the development of life itself. Darwin was born February 12, 1809 in England. Although initially entering into medicine, Darwin chose to pursue his interest in natural science and embarked on a five-year journey aboard the H.M.S. Beagle, a British sloop belonging to the Royal Navy. Because of his experience aboard the Beagle, he laid the foundation for his Theory of Evolution while also establishing him within the scientific community. Specifically, Darwin's keen observation of the fossils and wildlife he saw during his time on the Beagle served as the basis for the cornerstone of his theory: natural selection.
Natural selection is contributes to the basis of Darwin's Theory of Evolution. One of the core tenets of Darwin's theory is that more offspring are always produced for a species than can possibly survive. Yet, no two offspring are perfectly alike. As a result, through random mutation and genetic drift, over time offspring develop new traits and characteristics. Over time beneficial traits and characteristics that promote survival will be kept in the gene pool while those that harm survival will be selected against. Therefore, this natural selection ensures that a species gradually improves itself over an extended duration of time. On the other hand, as a species continues to 'improve' itself, it branches out to create entirely new species that are no longer capable of reproducing together.
Through natural selection, organisms could branch off of each other and evolve to the point where they no longer belong to the same species. Consequently, simple organisms evolve into more complex and different organisms as species break away from one another. Natural selection parallels selective breeding employed by humans on domesticated animals for centuries. Namely, horse breeders will ensure that horses with particular characteristics, such as speed and endurance, are allowed to produce offspring while horses that do not share those above-average traits will not. Therefore, over several generations, the new offspring will already be pre-disposed towards being excellent racing horses.
Darwin's theory is that 'selective breeding' occurs in nature as 'natural selection' is the engine behind evolution. Thus, the theory provides an excellent basis for understanding how organisms change over time. Nevertheless, it is just a theory and elusively difficult to prove. One of the major holes in Darwin's theory revolves around “irreducibly complex systems.” An irreducibly complex system is known as a system where many different parts must all operate together. As a result, in the absence of one, the system as a whole collapses. Consequently, as modern technology improves, science can identify these “irreducibly complex systems” even at microscopic levels. These complex systems, if so inter-reliant, would be resistant to Darwin's supposition of how evolution occurs. As Darwin himself admitted, “To suppose that the eye with all its inimitable contrivances for adjusting the focus for different distances, for admitting different amounts of light, and for the correction of spherical and chromatic aberration, could have been formed by natural selection, seems, I free confess, absurd in the highest degree.
In conclusion, “On the Origin of Species” is known as one of the most consequential books ever published. Darwin's Theory of Evolution remains, to this day, a lightning rod for controversy. The theory can be observed repeatedly, but never proven, and there are a plethora of instances that cast doubt on the processes of natural selection and evolution. Darwin's conclusions were a result of keen observation and training as a naturalist. Despite the controversy that swirls around his theory, Darwin remains one of the most influential scientists and naturalists ever born due to his Theory of Evolution.
1 According to paragraph 1, where did Charles Darwin begin to observe and formulate the basis for his Theory of Evolution?
2 The word 'postulate' in paragraph 1 is closest in meaning to:
3 Which sentence is most similar to the following sentence from paragraph 1?
The theory is based on the assumptions that life developed from non-life and progressed and evolved in an indirect manner.
4 According to paragraph 2, what are the causes for species developing new traits and characteristics? Select all that apply.
5 The word 'those' in paragraph 2 refers to:
6 According to paragraph 3, what is natural selection most comparable to as a process?
7 What is the purpose of paragraph 3 in the passage?
8 The word 'contrivances' in paragraph 4 is closest in meaning to:
9 The word 'consequential' in paragraph 5 is closest in meaning to:
10 All of the following are mentioned in paragraph 4 as a viewpoint to state that natural selection is difficult to prove EXCEPT
11 Examine the four █ in the selection below and indicate at which block the following sentence could be inserted into the passage:
12 In paragraph 4, what was the author's purpose of including a quote that the belief that the complexity of the human eye could have been formed by natural selection seems highly unlikely
13 The word 'plethora' in paragraph 5 is closest in meaning to:
14Directions: An introductory sentence for a brief summary of the passage is provided below. Complete the summary by selecting the THREE answer choices that express the most important ideas in the passage. Some sentences do not belong in the summary because they express ideas that are not presented in the passage or are minor ideas in the passage. This question is worth 2 points.
Paraphrasing involves restating something from the source material in one’s own words. On the TOEFL iBT, test takers receive a score of zero if all they do is copy words from the reading passage. Practice paraphrasing words, phrases, sentences, and entire paragraphs frequently using the following tips:
Sea otters are a small mammal that lives in the waters along North America's west coast from California to Alaska. A few years ago some of the sea otter populations off of the Alaskan coast started to decline rapidly and raised several concerns because of their important role in the coastal ecosystem. Experts began investigating and came up with two possible explanations. One explanation was environmental pollution and the second was attacks by predators.
At first it seemed as if the pollution was the most likely cause for the population decline. One reason pollution was more likely was because of the known pollution sources along the Alaskan coast such as oil rigs. Also water samples taken in the area showed increased levels of chemicals that could decrease the otters' immune systems and indirectly result in their deaths.
Another thing that pointed to pollution as the culprit was the decline of other sea mammals such as seals in the same areas. This indicated that whatever was affecting the otters was also affecting the other sea mammals. Environmental pollution usually affects an entire ecosystem instead of just one species. Only predators that occurred in a large area, such as orcas (a large predatory whale), could cause the same effect, but they usually hunt larger prey.
Finally, scientists believed the pollution hypothesis would also explain the uneven pattern of otter decline. In some Alaskan locations the otter population declined greatly while other populations remained stable. Some experts suggested this could be explained by ocean currents, or other environmental factor, might have created uneven concentrations of pollutants along the coast.
The lecturer and the reading passage offer two theories to explain why the sea otter population is in rapid decline. The two theories are predation theory and pollution theory.
The professor argues predation is the more likely cause than pollution because of the absence of dead sea otters washing up on shores. However, the reading passage attributes the decline of the sea otters population based on evidence of increased ocean contaminates leading to greater vulnerability to infections.
Also, the lecturer argues that orcas are likely factors in the population decline of the sea otters because of the scarcity of their usual prepay. This left them with no other option but to hunt smaller mammals for food. The reading passage refutes this theory based on the orca's hunting habits and points to the decline of both large and small sea mammals in the ecosystem as evidence for the pollution theory.
Finally, the uneven pattern of the sea otter decline, according to the lecturer, corresponds to the prevalence of orcas in different areas. However the reading passage says environmental factors, which lead to different levels of pollutant concentration, better explain the uneven pattern of sea otter decline.
College is an important and unique experience for many people. However, given the wide variety of people who attend college, there must be different reason people choose to seek a degree. People enroll in college for a variety of reasons from increased involvement, to career aspirations, to personal benefit. All of these reasons are valid and unique personal motives for seeking a college education.
First of all, some people attend college for the increased job and social opportunities they receive. In many universities students have opportunities to join clubs or sports teams that give them chances to try new activities, meet new people, and create lasting friendships. These social circumstances teach people about new areas of interest and improve social skills. A college education also opens up job opportunities. Colleges require students to take a variety of classes, which give people greater knowledge of many topics. This creates more job options for students who have a university degree rather than those that don’t. Seeking a degree creates better social and educational skills, which lead to varied life options.
Another reason people attend college is for career preparation. Some occupations require specific training that students can only receive in college. For example, a doctor must receive a college degree in biology before pursuing medical school. Before receiving a teaching license, students must complete required coursework including student teaching hours. Other careers that require a college degree are nursing, engineering, and law. All of these careers paths are impossible to enter without the training opportunities created through a college education. A university degree can be a necessary path towards preparing for certain careers, or can lead into those careers once a student finds a passion for the subject.
A final reason people attend college is for personal gains. Many of the personal benefits to gaining a college education include increased wealth and standard of life. In today’s job market, those people with college degrees have a better chance of employment. Also, those jobs that require a college degree are significantly higher paying jobs. If someone is trying to improve their standard of life a college degree can offer them more money and a generally higher standard of life that comes with better employment. Some people are trying to improver their personal and family situations through the increased job benefits of a college degree.
There are obviously many reasons for attending college. Whether it is for gaining more personal experiences, pursuing a specific career, or seeking a better standard of living, almost everybody can find some positive reason for enrolling in college. Although there are obviously many other reasons that people attend college these various examples highlight the potential benefits that almost anyone can hope to gain from the college experience.
I tried toefl network questions and it was the most simulating to the real toefl questions compared to other sources for toefl, specially in the writing section the first question and in the speaking section question number 4 & 6. the reading and listening questions were the same as the real test questions. also i found plenty of questions in each section so it worked well for my practice. finally when a problem happened the customer service were helpful and they helped me with this problem.
Morris Awad scored an excellent 100 on his TOEFL exam after practicing on TOEFL Network for over 1 month!
TOEFL Network - Zebra Education Inc.
is a matter of practicing and studying TOEFL questions everyday until they become second nature.
Zebra Education Inc. created TOEFL Network to help foreign English speakers practice the reading, listening, speaking, and writing sections in order to pass iBT's TOEFL test with a high score.
All information was found and referenced from the actual ibt TOEFL Tips pdf. You can find more information here: www.ets.org/Tests/TOEFL.pdfGood luck on your TOEFL exam!
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